On this page links to files, reports, articles with – mostly academic – research on free daily newspapers. The files are organized chronologically. Each entry has a short description. Some other research can be found on the blogs research page.






  • Bakholdt Andersen, Marie & Husted Rasmussen, Christoffer (2007). Det Danske Marked For Gratisaviser (The Danish Market for Free Newspapers) with appendix. [Thesis on strengths and weaknesses of Danish free dailies for the Copenhagen Business School, 125 pages, pdf, in Danish, summary in English.]
  • Bakker, Piet (2007). Free Daily Readership. In Worldwide Readership Research Symposia Vienna 2007, pp. 63-74. [Readership patterns in paid and free newspapers in 10 different countries: age, income, education, new and double readers, readers per copy, pdf.]
  • Bakker, Piet (2007). Free daily journalism – Anything new? Journalistica, 4, 22-32. (Is journalism in free dailies really different from journalism in paid newspapers.)
  • Bakker, Piet & Van Duijvenbode, Matthijs. (2007). Measuring Newspaper Innovations. Ideas, the magazine of the International Newspaper Marketing Association, May/June 2007, 10-13. [Not about free papers but about innovation in newspapers in general, how to classify it and how to measure it, with examples from the Dutch newspaper market, no download yet, send mail for pdf-version.]
  • Bakker, Piet (2007). Reaching Saturation Level. Publishing international market developments. p. 20.
  • Bakker, Piet (2007, March 16). No end in sight to free newspaper revolution. Press Gazette.
  • Bucher, Hans-Jürgen & Schumacher, Peter (2007). Tabloid versus Broadsheet: Wie Zeitungsformate gelesen werden. Eine vergleichende Rezeptionsstudie zur Leser-Blatt-Interaktion. Media Perspektiven 10/2007, 514-528. [An analysis of reading broadsheet and tabloid based of 42 readers of Die Welt (broadsheet) and Welt Kompakt (cheaper tabloid version of same paper, pdf, in German].
  • Callius, Peter & Lithner, Anders (2007). Daily Reach and Beyond. In Worldwide Readership Research Symposia Vienna 2007, pp. 357-372. [Research on day-by-day readership of free and paid papers in Sweden, pdf.]
  • Deuze, M., Bruns, A., & Neuberger, C. (2007). Preparing for an age of participatoiry news. Journalism Practise 1 (3), 322-338. Three case studies, one of them on free US daily Blufton Today. (no download, just link to journal)
  • Estudio de Medios para Immigrantes (2007). Study about media consumption of Madrid’s immigrants. Media use of almost 2,000 immigrants from Latin America, Eastern Europe and Asia was researched. [Spanish, 12 pages, pdf]
  • Stig Hjarvard (2007). Den politiske presse; En analyse af dankse avisers politiske orientering (The Political Press; An Analysis of Political Parallelism in Danish Newspapers). Journalistica 5, 27-53. [Readers evaluation of political views of Danish paid and free newspapers; in Danish, English abstract, pdf, 26 pages]
  • Klausch, Lars Thomas (2007). Media brand differentiation and homogeneity in keenly competitive markets: A study of free daily newspapers in London. [Thesis for the Imperial College, London on how readers experienced and valued the different free newspaper ‘brands’ in London, pdf, 67 pages]. (if you want a copy of the paper, please mailto:
  • Edi Kradolfer (2007, December). Nutzungsvielfalt neuer Medien in der Schweitz. Report, pp. 9-11. Article on readership patterns of different age groups in Switzerland in magazine of readership auditing organization WMEF. [In German and also in French).
  • Sebbane, Lionel (2007, July). La Press écrite en 2006: La crise perdure. Info-Médias, Julliet 2007, no. 13. [Data on income of written press in France in 2006, including free dailies, 8 pages with statistics and graphs, in French.]
  • Wadbring, Ingela (2007). The Role of Free Dailies in a Segregated Society. Nordicom Review, Jubilee Issue 2007, 135-147. [On the role of free dailies for readers and society in Sweden, in English, 14 pages, pdf.]
  • Wadbring, Ingela (2007). Konsekvenser av dagliga gratistidninger på marknaden – svenska erfarenheter. MedieKultur, 42/43, maj. (In Swedish [text: part 1] with interesting figures and graphs [part 2]: circulation of paid newspapers in Stockholm did not seem to go down after introduction of Metro in 1995 but all paid papers increased unpaid circulation – figures 1 and 2. Readership of free dailies grows faster than circulation – figure 3. Reach of all newspapers together increases significantly because of free newspapers, particularly for younger groups – figure 4 & 5. Advertising in paid does not seem to be affected much by introduction of free dailies – figure 6.)
  • Yi, Keunyeong & Sung, Yoontaek. (2007). What to Read in the Morning? A Niche Analysis of Free Daily Papers and Paid Papers in Korea. Journal of Media Management 9(4), 164-174. On the developement of free newspapers in Korea and the competition between free dailies, sports dailies and paid newspapers.


  • Haas, Marcus (2006). Kostenlose Pendlerzeitungen in Europa; Anbieter, Angebote, Strategien. Media Perspektiven, 10/2006, 510-520. [Position of free dailies in Europe, in German, 11 pages, pdf.]
  • Holznagel, Bernd (2006). Gratiszeitungen – ein Verstoß gegen die Pressefreiheit? Befunde eines Rechtsgutachtens. Media Perspektiven, 10/2006, 529-537. [Legal issues concerning the introduction of free dailies in Germany, in German, 13 pages, pdf.]
  • Machill, Marcel & Zenker, Martin (2006). Die Zukunft der Zeitung 7 – Anzeigenblätter und Gratiszeitungen. Die Konkurrenten der Lokalzeitungen. [Analysis about German chances for free dailies and current state of affairs on free weeklies and paid dailies, with data on circulation and advertising expenditure, in German, pdf, 10 pages]
  • N2 Newspaper Next; the Transformation Project. (2006). The American Press Institute. [Business research on newspaper innovation with some examples on free dailies in the USA.]
  • Röper, Horst (2006). Gratiszeitungen und etablierte Zeitungsverlage; (Mögliche) Effekte eines neuen Pressetyps. Media Perspektiven, 10/2006, 521-528. [Possible consequences of free dailies introduction on incumbent publishers, in German, 8 pages, pdf.]
  • Stojkovski, Goran (ed.) (2006). Media Monitoring in the Republic of Macedonia, 2005/2006. Media Mirror, no. 17, December 2006. [Quantitative and qualitative content analysis on six newspapers, including free daily Spic, and six TV channels in Macedonia during November - December 2006, 16 pages]


  • Bakker, Piet (2005, August). The second German newspaper war, [Plans by Schibsted and Metro to launch in Germany, html]
  • Bakker, Piet (2005). Growth in a shrinking market; the rise of the free daily newspaper. IDEAS, the magazine of newspaper marketing, July/August, 8-13.
  • Driendl, Thomas (2005). Der Markt für Gratiszeitungen in Österreich. Norderstedt: Grin Verlag. [mostly on free weeklies in Austria, part on free dailies U-Express & Heute, German.]
  • Haas, M. (2005). Die geschenkte Zeitung; Bestandsaufnahme und Studien zu einem neuen Pressetyp in Europa (The Free Paper; Description and Studies on a New Press Type). Münster: Lit. Verlag.) [Dissertation on free dailies in Western Europe, German.]
  • Mahoney, Kathleen P. & Collins, James H. (2005). Consumer Newspaper Choice in Markets with Free Print Options: Are Free Daily Newspapers Competition or Opportunity for Traditional Paid Products? [Readership research by New York Times and Scarborough Research on unique readership of titles and readership overlap in New York, Boston, Dallas and Chicago, pdf, 19 pages]
  • Project for Excellence in Journalism (2005). EXTRA! EXTRA! New tabloid breed is more than screaming headlines but could they be blueprint to the future? (html version) [Content analysis of three commuter tabloids, one home delivery tabloid, and three broadsheets in April-August 2005 in Boston, Washington, D.C., and Dallas, pdf, 19 pages]
  • Stoll, Michael (2005, July, August & October). At free dailies, advertisers sometimes call the shots; Free papers: more local but often superficial; Free papers’ growth threatens traditional news. [Research by Grade the News about free dailies in the San Francisco Bay area, html.]
  • Wilcox, Lynne (2005). Metro, info, haro! Fierce reactions to regime competition in the French newspaper industry. Media, Culture & Society, Vol. 27, No. 3, 353-369. (abstract) [History based mostly on newspaper clippings of the introduction of free dailies in France in 2002.]


  • Bakker, Piet (2005). 5 years of free newspapers in the Netherlands. [Study on substitution effects between paid and free dailies in the Netherlands, in Dutch with English summary, pdf.]
  • Hirtzmann, Ludovic & Martin, Francois (2004). Le Défi des quotidiens gratuit. Sainte-Foy (Quebec): MultiMondes. [Book on introduction of free dailies in France and Canada, in French.]
  • Mazzeo, Micol (2004). Free Press: City, Metro E Leggo; Nuovi astri nella galassia Gutenberg tra web e tv. [University of Bologna, free dailies in Italy, in Italian, 36 pages, pdf.]
  • Trouinard, Amelie (2004). Les bouleversements des champs organisationels: Quelles leçons tirer de la Presse Quotidienne Parisienne. [Strategies of publishers in the introduction phase of free dailies in France, in French, pdf.]


  • Sporstøl, Ellen (2003). Free Papers in Spain: 20 Minutes of Fame or here to stay? [Thesis Norwegian School of Management, about the introduction and business models of free dailies in Spain.]
  • Wadbring, Ingela (2003). A paper for its Time? Metro and the Swedish Newspaper market. Göteborg. [Summary in English of Swedish dissertation about the introduction of Metro Sweden].


  • Bakker, Piet (2002). Free Daily Newspapers – Business Models and Strategies. JMM, Journal of Media Management, vol. 4, no. 3, 180-187. [On the introduction of free dailies and the possible development of readership of paid papers.]
  • Bakker, Piet (2002). Reinventing Newspapers; Readers and markets of free dailies. In Picard, Robert G. (ed.) Media Firms; Structures, Operations, and Performance. Mawah, New Jersey / London: Lawrence Erlbaum, pp. 77-87. [Covering the first five years of free dailies worldwide.]
  • De Chiara, Arianna Fabiana (2002). Leggo City in Metro; Viaggio nel fenomeno della free press. Rome, 2002. [On the introduction of free dailies in Italy, in Italian.]
  • Larenas Martinez, M., Ramoz Flores, C. & Siegel Silva, M.P. (2002). El Fenomeno de los Diarios Gratuitos. [Thesis on the introduction of free dailies in Chile, in Spanish, 176 pages, pdf.]
  • Peyrègne, Vincent & Arnould, Valérie (2002). Quotidiens d’information gratuits en Europe: stratégie et impact sur les médias traditionnels (2002). [Covering the introduction of free dailies in Europe and possible consequences for paid dailies, in French.]